La percepción ciudadana sobre la sostenibilidad del patrimonio mundial. El caso del centro histórico de Santa Ana de Cuenca

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Bárbara Molina

Keywords

Ciudadanía; gestión; metodología participativa; Patrimonio Mundial; UNESCO

Resumen





La incorporación del modelo sostenible en la gestión del Patrimonio Mundial, implica un enfoque participativo en la identificación, protección, conservación, presentación y transmisión de los valores universales excepcionales para las generaciones futuras. La ciudadanía, como actor social relevante, aporta una percepción del patrimonio que informa sobre cuestiones clave para lograr una gestión sostenible del mismo. La carencia de metodologías para comprender la relación entre la sociedad y el patrimonio desde el enfoque sostenible, sin embargo, supone una limitación para la participación de la ciudadanía en la gestión patrimonial. Este artículo proporciona evidencia empírica sobre el nivel de sostenibilidad que existe en el centro histórico Patrimonio Mundial de Cuenca (Ecuador), desde la percepción ciudadana. Los resultados estadísticos revelan que la sostenibilidad del patrimonio depende de una reputación que se construye en torno a múltiples fenómenos interconectados que determinan unos patrones actitudinales positivos o negativos. El artículo contribuye así a la comprensión de la relación entre ciudadanía y patrimonio, haciendo hincapié en los aspectos que deben ser trabajados metodológicamente para lograr una gestión sostenible del centro histórico de Cuenca.


Palabras Claves: Ciudadanía; gestión; metodología participativa; Patrimonio Mundial; UNESCO.


Abstract


The incorporation of the sustainable model in World Heritage Sites management implies a participatory approach in the identification, protection, conservation, presentation and transmission of the outstanding universal values (OUV) for future generations (UNESCO, 2017). Citizens, as relevant social actors, provide a reputation regarding cultural heritage that informs on key issues in order to achieve its sustainable management. The lack of methodologies to comprehend the relationship between society and cultural heritage from a sustainable approach is a limitation to achieve participatory management. This article provides empirical evidence on the level of sustainability that exists in the World Heritage site of Cuenca (Ecuador), from the citizen`s point of view. The statistical results reveal that its sustainability relies on a reputation that is built around multiple interconnected phenomena that determine positive or negative attitudinal patterns. The article thus contributes to the understanding of the relationship between citizenship and heritage, with emphasis on the aspects that must be addressed in order to achieve sustainable management in the historic center of Cuenca.






Key words: Citizenship; management; participatory methodology; UNESCO; World Heritage.





Resumo


A incorporação do modelo sustentável na gestão do Patrimônio Mundial, implica uma ênfase participativa na identificação, proteção, conservação, apresentação e transmissão dos valores universais excepcionais para as gerações futuras. A cidadania, como ator social relevante, traz uma percepção do patrimônio que indica sobre questões chave para conseguir uma gestão sustentável. A falta de metodologias para compreender a relação entre a sociedade e o patrimônio desde um enfoque sustentável, todavia, supõe uma limitação para a participação da cidadania na gestão patrimonial. O artigo proporciona evidencia empírica sobre o nível de sustentabilidade que existe no centro histórico Patrimônio Mundial de Cuenca (Equador), desde a percepção cidadã. Os resultados estatísticos revelam que a sustentabilidade do patrimônio depende de uma reputação que se construa ao redor de múltiplos fenômenos interconectados que determinam padrões atitudinais positivos ou negativos. O artigo contribui assim para a compreensão da relação entre a cidadania e o patrimônio, tendo ênfase nos aspectos que devem ser trabalhados metodologicamente para obter uma gestão sustentável do centro histórico de Cuenca.


Palavras-chave: Cidadania; gestão; metodologia participativa; Patrimônio Mundial; UNESCO.








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